Kubinka tank polygon. Testing area, the shooting range and the museum

38th military Scientific-Research and testing Institute (NIII BTVT) decorated by the October Revolution Order, the Red Banner Order and named after the Armored Forces Marshal Fedorenko YA.N.
The history of 38 NIII BTVT begins with the creation, in the accordance with the order of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR on April 4, 1931 the “Research and Testing Tank-Automobile polygon N22” for the Red Army mechanization and motorization department HQ. Polygon dislocation ordered to be 1.5 km. south from the Kubinka rail station, the Belarusian Railways (Poland/Berlin direction) and the same highway (really only one in USSR). The founder and the first head of the Polygon was appointed the Brigade Commander rank comrade Preisman (killed later, however by Stalin during the Great terror).
10 th July 1931 23 people of the Polygon personnel arrived at the site to be constructed in the specified area, and dwelt in tents. This day later, by order of the Defense Minister of the USSR from 1971 N007., was appointed as the day of the Polygon formation as the military unit.
In subsequent years, the team annually poured new strength, the Polygon grew and enlarged, increased in the testing volume. The new researches, an establish and improve of the laboratory facilities. The new military hangars, the laboratory buildings and the living houses for the local staff, and of course, the living, political and cultural infrastructure. The new small military village (gorodok) with the restricted rules.
Every year the growing and developing of the business contacts and the cooperation between the Polygon and other research organizations, the design offices, the military factories and the industrial forces. Polygon grow and strengthen the authority of the test site as a military-scientific institution.
All tanks and the armored vehicles those USSR bought in UK (Carden-Loyd Vickers = soviet T-35, T-38 etc. serie) and USA (Christie= BT serie) like the prototypes for the soviet tank building were tested in Kubinka. The new serial and the experimental samples of the new soviet tanks were tested also in Kubinka polygon.
The old fashion soviet tanks, the prototypes and Red Army trophies 1920-1922 (British Mk V “Rombus” and French FT-17 “Renault” were placed since 1938 in the small corner of the Kubinka polygon. The Kubinka tank museum founded but non-officially, just like a “polygon collection”
During Halkyn-Hal local war (conflict) the Red army captured some Japan tanks and trucks those were placed to the Kubinka “museum” area corner like the trophies and the subjects to be studied .
Since the Soviet-Finland “winter” war Kubinka polygon started to test the new soviet heavy tanks and AV to attack the “Mannerheim line”. One AV was the participant and returned into Kubinka polygon to be tested.
Before WWII some the soviet tanks were tested in Kubinka such as BT-5 (the light speed roll –tracked tank based on Cristie chassis) and the light amphibian T-40 (see more about WWII veteran tank troop colonel Kalinina (women) test driving from Moscow to Kiev)
By the beginning of World War II Institution has the qualified and experienced military engineers, the testers, able to competently and promptly meet the challenges put forward demands.

Tested in the Polygon on the eve of the war, and put to mass production of tanks T-34 and KV on the main characteristics significantly superior tanks pre-war years in Germany, the UK, the US and other countries.
During the Great Patriotic War the volume of the work performed Polygon has increased dramatically. 306 tanks and self-propelled guns, designed and implemented more than 300 proposals and recommendations to address identified deficiencies and improve the tested samples were tested.
All Lend-Lease armored vehicles (adopted and the proposals only) received from UK/USA were studied on the polygon by the soviet military engineers, the documentation was translated into Russian. Accepted and refused samples founded pavilion N 5 of the Kubinka collection/pavilion (As the base and completed later by the trophies of Korea/Vietnam/Arabic wars)
Kubinka needed the German new tanks as the Tiger to be tested for the distance, exact places and by type of the soviet anti-tanks rifles/ guns, the grenades or the mines to be destroyed. The first German Tiger captured near Leningrad 1942 was successfully tested and Kubinka printed the special instruction (poster) for the Red army soldiers how to destroy those tanks.
After the battle for Kursk and Prokhorovka tank battle the polygon sent the special team of engineers to test all details , how German tanks were destroyed and to collect some examples to study in Kubinka

As the request of Kubinka and HQ all Red Army military units tried to capture in the work condition all samples of German tanks and AV. After WWII as the order of Marshal Zhukov the big German tank Maus was assembled from the parts at Kumensdorf polygon and delivered into Kubinka .
A lot of Japan tanks and AV were captured in 1945 in Manchukuo

танковый полигон Кубинка

1968. Presentation of the Banner and the Order of the Red Banner of the 22nd NIIBP

In the cold war period the Polygon continued to do the same job: learn and test the new soviet and the foreigner armored vehicles.
The increasing complexity of the tasks entrusted to the landfill, which he served during the postwar years, has led to the actual merging its functions within the research institute and test facility. In this regard, the General Staff of the Directive on 5 February 1972 22nd landfill was transformed in the 38th Scientific Research Testing Institute of armored vehicles.
To date, the institute has accumulated rich experience in the organization and staging of research and testing. The Institute has a unique, the only one in Russia and the CIS, a complex of modern experimental equipment for research and testing as the armored tank weapons and technology, and military equipment on their basis, as well as national economic tracked and wheeled vehicles.
For great merits in the development and testing of new equipment Institute was awarded by the Order of the Red Banner (1968) and the October Revolution (1976.). In 1977, 38 NIII AVA named Marshal of Armored Forces Fedorenko

May 24, 2010, after another reorganization NIII 38 was transformed into the «Research & Test Center of armored vehicles» and is included in the structure of the Central Research Institute of the Russian Defense Ministry N3.

Chiefs of the (Polygon) Institute:

1931-1933 Brigade Commander Preisman
1933-1934 Military Engineer of the 1st rank Shatilin
1934-1937 Military Engineer of the 1st rank Uger
1937-1939 Military Engineer of the 1st rank Ilyukhin
1939-1949 Major-General of armored troops Romanov
1949-1956 Major General of Engineer Tank Service Alymov
1956-1964 Major General of Engineer Tank Service Barykov
1964-1970 Major General of Engineer Tank Service Tarasenko
1970-1976 Major General Engineer Tank Service Yakubchik
1976-1985 Lieutenant- General, Engineer Antonevich
1985-1992 Major-General Bryzgov
1992-1995 Major- General Bespalov
1995 -2000 the Major-General Evteev
2000 — 2010 Major- General Fedota
2010 — 2014 Colonel Tregubenko

To be continued…